In medieval times, the area of Cavan was part of the petty kingdom of East Bréifne or Brefney O'Reilly after its ruling Gaelic family. This in turn was a division of the 11th century Kingdom of Bréifne. For this reason the county is colloquially known as the Breffni County. A high degree of defence was achieved by using the natural landscape of drumlin hills and loughs. The poorly drained heavy clay soils contributed as an obstacle against invasion.
Historically, Cavan was part of the western province of Connacht, but was transferred to Ulster in 1584 when Bréifne was shired and became the county of Cavan. In the south, the Lough Sheelin area was part of Leinster until the late 14th century.
Parts of Cavan were subjected to Norman influence from the twelfth century and the remains of several motte and bailie fortifications are still visible mainly in the east of the county, as well as the remains of stronger works such as Castlerahan and Clogh Oughter castle. The influence of several monastic orders also owes its origins to around this time with abbey remains existent in locations such as Drumlane and Trinity Island.
The Plantation of Ulster from 1610 saw the settlement and origins of several new towns within the county that include Bailieborough, Cootehill, Killeshandra and Virginia. Existing towns such as Cavan and Belturbet became over time more important as trading centres. Wars aimed at trying to unsettle the Plantation only led to further plantations of English and Scottish settlers into the county and the beginnings of a thriving flax and linen industry.
Some areas of Cavan were hard hit by the Great Famine potato blight between 1845-49. The winter of 1847 is particularly noted for the high levels of deaths nationally caused by diseases such as typhus and cholera. Several instances of eviction also occurred during the nineteenth century, with one such story where the local landlord in Mountnugent parish decided to evict over 200 people. The famous ballad "By Lough Sheelin Side" is based on this event witnessed by the local Catholic priest.
Geography and political subdivisions:
Cavan borders six counties; Leitrim to the west, Fermanagh and Monaghan to the north, Meath to the south-east, Longford to the south-west and Westmeath to the south. Cavan shares a 70 km (43 mi) border with County Fermanagh in Northern Ireland. Cavan is the 19th largest of the 32 counties in area and the 25th largest by population.
It is also the sixth largest of Ulster's nine counties in size and the seventh largest by population.
There are eight historic baronies in the county. While baronies continue to be officially defined units, they are no longer used for many administrative purposes. Their official status is illustrated by Placenames Orders made since 2003, where official Irish names of baronies are listed under "Administrative units".
Civil parishes and townlands:
Townlands are the smallest officially defined geographical divisions in Ireland, there are approximately 1979 townlands in the county.
The county is characterised by drumlin countryside dotted with many lakes and hills. The north-western area of the county is sparsely populated and mountainous. The Breifne mountains contains the highest point, Cuilcagh at 665 metres (2,182 feet).
Cavan is the source of many rivers in Ireland. Shannon Pot on the slopes of Culicagh is the source of the River Shannon, the longest river in Ireland at 386 km (240 mi). The River Erne is a major river which rises from Beaghy Lough, two miles (3 km) south of Stradone in Cavan and flows for 120 km (75 mi) to Lough Erne. Other rivers in the county include the Blackwater River from Lough Ramor which joins the River Boyne at Navan. the Dee which springs near Bailieborough, the River Annalee which flows from Lough Sillan and joins the Erne, the Cladagh river rises from Culicagh and flows into Fermanagh. The Glyde and the Owenroe also source in Cavan.
Cavan is known as 'The Lakeland County' and is reputed to contain 365 lakes. At 18.8 km2 (7.3 sq mi), Lough Sheelin is the county's largest lake situated in the south of the county and forms a three way border on its waters between counties Meath and Westmeath and Cavan.
A large complex of lakes form in the north and west of Cavan into designated Specially Protected Areas (SPA), example of this being Lough Oughter. Other important wildlife protected lakes such as Lough Gowna and Lough Ramor are in the south and east of the county. Cavan has a mainly hilly (drumlin) landscape and contains just under 7,000 hectares (17,000 acres) of forested area, 3.6% of Cavan's total land area. The county contains forests such as Bellamont Forest near Cootehill, Killykeen Forest Park at Lough Oughter (a Coillte state forest concern), Dún na Rí Forest Park and the Burren Forest.
Met Éireann records the climate data for Cavan from their station at Ballyhaise. Under Köppen climate classification, Cavan experiences a maritime temperate oceanic climate with cold winters, mild humid summers, and a lack of temperature extremes. The average maximum January temperature is 8.0 °C (46 °F), while the average maximum July temperature is 19.1 °C (66 °F). On average, the sunniest months are May and June, while the wettest month is October with 98 mm (4 in) of rain, and the driest months are May and June with 57 mm (2 in) respectively. Humidity is high year round and rainfall is evenly distributed throughout the year, with the annual precipitation at Ballyhaise being 832 mm (33 in)
On average, snow showers occur between November and March. In 2010, record low temperatures for November, December and January were recorded in Cavan. In late December, the temperature at the station fell to −15.4 °C (4 °F), its lowest ever. On Tuesday 21 December 2010, a daily maximum of −9.4 °C (15 °F) was recorded at Ballyhaise, the lowest daily maximum ever recorded in Ireland. Summer daytime temperatures range between 15 °C (59 °F) and 22 °C (72 °F), with temperatures rarely going beyond 25 °C (77 °F).
Like much of Ireland, the county experiences long summer days and short winter days. The annual sunshine hours the county receives on average range between 1,300 and 1,500 hours.
Local government and politics:
Party Seats % of Votes
Fine Gael 13 45.3%
Fianna Fáil 8 34.5%
Sinn Féin 4 12%
Labour Party 0 2.4%
Green Party 0 0.5%
Independent 0 5.3%
Cavan is divided into four local electoral areas: Bailieborough, Ballyjamesduff, Belturbet and Cavan. There are three town Councils: Cavan, Belturbet and Cootehill. The 2009 Cavan local elections had an average voter turnout of 64.48%, the highest electoral area being Belturbet with just under 70%.
For the purposes of elections to Dáil Éireann, the county is part of the Cavan–Monaghan constituency which returns five deputies (TDs) to the Dáil. In the 2011 general election, there was a voter turnout of 72.7%.
The county is part of the Border Region - a NUTS II entity - which is in turn part of the level III NUTS entity - Border, Midland and Western.
For elections to the European Parliament, the county is part of the North–West constituency (formerly Connacht–Ulster).
Places of interest:
Two national primary routes pass through the county, The N3 road and the N16 road. The N3 is the longest route in Cavan, crossing the county for 60 km (37 mi) from the Meath border at Whitegate near Virginia and through Belturbet into Fermanagh. The N16 begins in Sligo and ends at Blacklion in the far northwestern tip of Cavan, it crosses the county for roughly 7 km (4.3 mi).
Three national secondary routes pass through the county. The N87 road begins in Belturbet and passes through Ballyconnell and Swanlinbar before crossing into County Fermanagh where it becomes the A32. The N54 route from Monaghan and Clones joines the N3 at Butlersbridge. The N55 links Cavan to the large town of Athlone via Ballinagh and Granard.
Bus Éireann provide bus services to villages and towns across the county, including a direct route from Cavan to Dublin Airport.
In the mid 1850s the Midland Great Western Railway built a line between the Inny Junction in Co. Westmeath (along their expanding network which was eventually to reach Sligo) and Cavan town. The first railway station to open in Cavan, was Cavan railway station in 1856. Many notable railway stations were built in the 1800s such as Kingscourt railway station and the Cavan and Leitrim Railway. The railways were an important part of the economic development of Cavan and carried passengers and freight to all over Ireland. The railways also helped the popularity of GAA in Cavan grow, spectators could travel easily between towns.
After World War II, due to the shortage of coal in the country, uneconomic lines were terminated. In 1947 all passenger services were terminated though the transport of freight and livestock continued. The Great Northern Railway (G.N.R.) continued to serve the Cavan and Leitrim Railway. However, in 1959 all services along the remaining rail lines were terminated and the stations along their routes were closed.
In the historical context and before water levels in lakes were lowered, water transport in the region was once very important through the complex of lakes and waterways that fed into the major river systems such as the Erne, Shannon and Boyne. Today however this is mainly confined to leisure craft on the River Erne from Belturbet and Ballyconnell as well as for angling activities.
In Gaelic football, Cavan GAA competes annually in the All-Ireland Senior Football Championship, which it has won 5 times between 1933 and 1952. The team is currently in division 3 of the National Football League and division 4 of the National Hurling League. Hurling is a declining sport in the county and the Cavan county board has discussed disbanding the senior team to promote the sport at junior level.
GAA football player Seanie Johnston was born in the county.
The first GAA club founded in Cavan was Ballyconnell in 1885. However the club didn’t affiliate to GAA Central Council until March 1886 so that can be taken as the founding of the GAA in Cavan and Ulster.
The most successful club in Cavan is Cornafean with 20 Senior Football Championship titles, their last title was won in 1956. The most successful club in recent years has been Cavan Gaels GAA which has won 8 of the last 11 Senior Football Championships. Cavan Gaels are the current senior football champions, defeating Castlerahan in the 2011 decider. No team from Cavan has ever won a national or provincial title.
There is a strong history of athletics in Cavan, with a 300m Tartan track in Shercock and other athletics facilities throughout the county. There are five athletics clubs in the county at present, but there have been many more over the years. The current athletics clubs are Annalee AC, Bailieborough AC, Innyvale AC, Laragh AC and Shercock AC.
Fishing is a very popular activity in Cavan because of its complex of large rivers and lakes.
As of 2011, Cavan has a population of 73,183 making it the 25th largest county by population, ahead of Sligo and behind Offaly.
In 2009, Cavan (according to CSO statistics) had a natural population increase of 703 people (1,212 births minus 509 deaths).
Cavan has a higher percentage than the state average of people in the dependency age, 0-14 and over 65 with 34.7% in 2006, which is a drop from 36.6% in 2002. Cavan had a high age dependency ratio in 2002 of 66.91%, this was due to the migration of people who went for third level education elsewhere or who looked for work, most likely in the Greater Dublin Area. The language spoken in the county is predominantly English, with just 35% of the Cavan population also Irish speaking. The national census of April 2011 shows net migration slowing to a rate of 16.2% over that of previous periods. Between 2002 and 2006 Cavan had a population increase of 13.2%, and of this growth 83.4% was due to inward migration.
The preliminary 2011 Census results (published in July 2011) show a County Cavan population increase of 13.9%, the largest population growth in Ireland after County Laois. The population rose from 64,003 to 73,183 persons with an average increase of 15% seen in electoral areas in the southeast of the county. This increase is due to the continued population growth of N3/M3 proximity commuter towns such as Virginia, Ballyjamesduff, Bailieborough and Mullagh. Virginia is now the second largest populated town in the county. However, a continued decrease as seen from earlier census results in areas of the north and west of the county, including urban areas such Cavan and Cootehill towns. The 2011 preliminary census results also listed the highest percentage of partially constructed and vacant houses situated in the north and west of the county, representing over 20% of its dwellings vacant.
Agriculture is the largest industry in the county, especially dairy milk processing as well as pig and beef farming. Much of Cavan's land consists of Clay soils, which are rich in minerals, but heavy and poorly drained, making pasture farming the dominant farming system in the county.
There is a total farmed area of 138,314 hectares (341,780 acres) in the county, and there are approximately 249,217 cattle in Cavan. Lakeland Dairies group, which has manufacturing sites located throughout Cavan, is Ireland's second largest dairy co-operative, with an annual revenue of €472 million.
Cavan and Cork are Ireland's leading counties in pig production and Cavan farms represent 20% of the national pig herd. Pig farming regulations have put pressure on the industry, which is highly dependent on affordable credit.
Traditionally an agricultural economy, Cavan has since expanded in other industries, chiefly quarrying, energy production and manufacturing facilities. As of April 2012, Cavan produces 122.02 Megatwatts of wind energy, the largest wind farm is at Bindoo, which produces 48 MW's of energy.
Peat cutting exists in the northwest of the county, in the Cuilcagh range. Major industries such as Quinn Quaries and Gypsum Industries are also important employers within the county. There are a number of quarries located in the county and the Quinn cement facility is located in Ballyconnell.
By disposable income per person, Cavan ranks between Clare and Laois at 17th out of 27 in Ireland, at 91.3% of the State average (€19,246), roughly €5,000 behind Dublin, Ireland's richest county.
As of June 2012, there are 7,645 people on live register in the county. An unemployment rate of 10.5%, 4.1% below the national average.
Counties of Ireland
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